Education

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Intervention

Yearly performance incentive scheme for students, teachers and school principals: (i) 10th and 11th graders students received (a) a cash payment ranging from 4,000 to 15,000 Mexican pesos (around 400 to 1,500 US dollars), based on the evolution on a 4-level mathematics achievement scale in a given academic year (according to schedule represented in table 3) and (b) a cash payment equivalent to 1 percent of the sum of her mathematics classmates’ individual rewards; (ii) 12th graders received only the individual cash payments of the former type; (iii) mathematics teachers received (a) a cash payment (or deduction) ranging from a negative 125 to 750 Mexican pesos (around -12.5 to 75 US dollars) per student based on their students’ performance on the same scale (according to schedule represented in table 4) and (b) a fixed proportion of 25 percent of the the reward received by all mathematics teachers; (iv) non mathematic teachers received cash payments equivalent to 25 percent of the schoolwide average mathematics teachers payment; (v) principals received a bonus equivalent to 50 percent of the schoolwide average mathematics teachers payment; (vi) associate principals received a bonus equivalent to 25 percent of the schoolwide average mathematics teachers payment

Unit of Analysis

High school students (10th to 12th grade)

Year

2008 - 2011

Country

Mexico

Outcome | Methodology | Effect |
---|---|---|

10th graders' standardized math score, 1 year after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.314, Standard error: 0.0579 |

10th graders' standardized math score, 1 year after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of females) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.358, Standard error: 0.0530 |

10th graders' standardized math score, 1 year after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of males) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.33, Standard error: 0.0748 |

11th graders' standardized math score, 2 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.437, Standard error: 0.0833 |

11th graders' standardized math score, 2 years after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of females) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.51, Standard error: 0.0743 |

11th graders' standardized math score, 2 years after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of males) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.455, Standard error: 0.0998 |

12th graders' standardized math score, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.567, Standard error: 0.151 |

12th graders' standardized math score, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of females) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.639, Standard error: 0.158 |

12th graders' standardized math score, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme (sub-sample of males) | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.637, Standard error: 0.149 |

12th graders self-reported average hours of math study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.37, Standard error: 0.127, Counterfactual mean: 4.53 |

12th graders self-reported average hours of nonmath study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.168, Standard error: 0.127, Counterfactual mean: 5.32 |

12th graders self-reported paying attention more than 75% of the time, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.05, Standard error: 0.032, Counterfactual mean: 0.481 |

12th graders self-reported never or almost never texting while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.061, Standard error: 0.022, Counterfactual mean: 0.415 |

12th graders self-reported never or almost never watching TV while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.060, Standard error: 0.027, Counterfactual mean: 0.498 |

12th graders self-reported helping classmates, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.026, Standard error: 0.028, Counterfactual mean: 0.643 |

Fraction of 12th graders' teachers that self-reported preparing students for standardized test, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.176, Standard error: 0.098, Counterfactual mean: 0.241 |

Fraction of 12th graders' teachers that self-reported helping students prepare for standardized test outside of class, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.482, Standard error: 0.103, Counterfactual mean: 0.204 |

10th graders' standardized math score, 2 year after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.466, Standard error: 0.0761 |

10th graders' standardized math score, 3 year after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.634, Standard error: 0.104 |

11th graders' standardized math score, 1 year after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.186, Standard error: 0.0739 |

11th graders' standardized math score, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.421, Standard error: 0.0564 |

12th graders' standardized math score, 1 year after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.288, Standard error: 0.0636 |

12th graders' standardized math score, 2 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.348, Standard error: 0.0646 |

10th graders self-reported average hours of math study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.397, Standard error: 0.112, Counterfactual mean: 4.68 |

11th graders self-reported average hours of math study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.301, Standard error: 0.135, Counterfactual mean: 4.45 |

10th graders self-reported average hours of nonmath study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.152, Standard error: 0.122, Counterfactual mean: 5.56 |

11th graders self-reported average hours of nonmath study a week, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.074, Standard error: 0.134, Counterfactual mean: 5.48 |

10th graders self-reported paying attention more than 75% of the time, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.101, Standard error: 0.028, Counterfactual mean: 0.473 |

11th graders self-reported paying attention more than 75% of the time, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.07, Standard error: 0.023, Counterfactual mean: 0.479 |

10th graders self-reported never or almost never texting while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.126, Standard error: 0.024, Counterfactual mean: 0.423 |

11th graders self-reported never or almost never texting while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.097, Standard error: 0.022, Counterfactual mean: 0.429 |

10th graders self-reported never or almost never watching TV while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.088, Standard error: 0.026, Counterfactual mean: 0.493 |

11th graders self-reported never or almost never watching TV while doing homework, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.093, Standard error: 0.022, Counterfactual mean: 0.517 |

10th graders self-reported helping classmates, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.086, Standard error: 0.02, Counterfactual mean: 0.599 |

11th graders self-reported helping classmates, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.087, Standard error: 0.022, Counterfactual mean: 0.608 |

Fraction of 10th graders' teachers that self-reported preparing students for standardized test, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.412, Standard error: 0.106, Counterfactual mean: 0.167 |

Fraction of 11th graders' teachers that self-reported preparing students for standardized test, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.256, Standard error: 0.110, Counterfactual mean: 0.260 |

Fraction of 10th graders' teachers that self-reported helping students prepare for standardized test outside of class, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.435, Standard error: 0.098, Counterfactual mean: 0.241 |

Fraction of 11th graders' teachers that self-reported helping students prepare for standardized test outside of class, 3 years after the of the start of incentives scheme | Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) | Magnitude: 0.554, Standard error: 0.092, Counterfactual mean: 0.220 |