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Labor Markets and Wealth

"Jóvenes en Acción" (Colombia)



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Authors

Orazio Attanasio, Adriana Kugler, Costas Meghir

Source

American Economic Journal: Applied Economics

Year

2011

Link

Intervention

Offer to participate (take-up of 97%) in the "Jóvenes en Acción" program, developed and implemented by the Government of Colombia with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank: (i) three months or 280 to 350 hours of in-classroom practical training for administrative, manual and skilled occupations (Table A1 lists the courses) and soft skills (proactive behavior, resourcefulness, openness to feedback, teamwork, etc) provided by private training institutions; (ii) three months of on-the-job training provided by legally registered companies, which provided unpaid internships to the participants (iii) all through the six months of intervention, participants developed a "project of life", orienting youth towards a positive visualization of their abilities, personal and work perspectives; the program provided cash transfers throughout the 6 months in the program to cover for transportation and lunch and course providers were paid a relatively small amount if a youth completed only the classroom component, and received additional payments if the beneficiaries completed the apprenticeship and were hired by the firms that employed them

Unit of Analysis

Individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 in the two lowest socioeconomic strata of the population, that were accepted into the program and could attend to training institutions in the seven largest cities of the country

Year

2005-2006

Country

Colombia

Outcome Methodology Effect
Employed, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.054, Standard error: 0.022, Counterfactual mean: 0.637
Employed and received payment, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.068, Standard error: 0.023, Counterfactual mean: 0.550
Days worked (per month), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 1.172, Standard error: 0.614, Counterfactual mean: 14.840
Hours worked (per week), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 2.866, Standard error: 1.398, Counterfactual mean: 31.820
Wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 34668, Standard error: 9743, Counterfactual mean: 177161
Self-employment earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 1950, Standard error: 3568, Counterfactual mean: 11970
Employed and held a written contract, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.078, Standard error: 0.019, Counterfactual mean: 0.191
Formally employed (covered by health, pension and injury compensation benefits), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.069, Standard error: 0.020, Counterfactual mean: 0.197
Formal wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 26604, Standard error: 9150, Counterfactual mean: 79623
Informal wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 7174, Standard error: 8337, Counterfactual mean: 97537
Employed, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -0.027, Standard error: 0.030, Counterfactual mean: 0.833
Employed and received payment, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.013, Standard error: 0.029, Counterfactual mean: 0.689
Days worked (per month), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -0.560, Standard error: 0.620, Counterfactual mean: 20.060
Hours worked (per week), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -2.370, Standard error: 1.480, Counterfactual mean: 45.15
Wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 13690, Standard error: 12819, Counterfactual mean: 265292
Self-employment earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -6731, Standard error: 5839, Counterfactual mean: 35435
Employed and held a written contract, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.061, Standard error: 0.028, Counterfactual mean: 0.286
Formally employed (covered by health, pension and injury compensation benefits), approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.053, Standard error: 0.030, Counterfactual mean: 0.341
Formal wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 30777, Standard error: 13569, Counterfactual mean: 144977
Informal wage and salary earnings in Colombian pesos, approximately 1 year after the end of the program (sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -15310, Standard error: 11315, Counterfactual mean: 120314

Authors

Orazio Attanasio, Costas Meghir, Arlen Guarín

Source

American Economic Journal: Applied Economics

Year

2017

Link

Intervention

Offer to participate (take-up of 97%) in the "Jóvenes en Acción" program, developed and implemented by the Government of Colombia with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank: (i) three months or 280 to 350 hours of in-classroom practical training for administrative, manual and skilled occupations (Table A1 lists the courses) and soft skills (proactive behavior, resourcefulness, openness to feedback, teamwork, etc) provided by private training institutions; (ii) three months of on-the-job training provided by legally registered companies, which provided unpaid internships to the participants (iii) all through the six months of intervention, participants developed a "project of life", orienting youth towards a positive visualization of their abilities, personal and work perspectives; the program provided cash transfers throughout the 6 months in the program to cover for transportation and lunch and course providers were paid a relatively small amount if a youth completed only the classroom component, and received additional payments if the beneficiaries completed the apprenticeship and were hired by the firms that employed them

Unit of Analysis

Individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 in the two lowest socioeconomic strata of the population, that were accepted into the program and could attend to training institutions in the seven largest cities of the country

Year

2005-2014

Country

Colombia

Outcome Methodology Effect
Formally employed, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.042, Standard error: 0.012, Counterfactual mean: 0.360
Formally employed and working in a large firm (more than 200 employees), within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.032, Standard error: 0.010, Counterfactual mean: 0.189
Formal wage and salary earnings in 2013 Colombian pesos, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 35331, Standard error: 10766, Counterfactual mean: 258922
Formally employed, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.047, Standard error: 0.015, Counterfactual mean: 0.290
Formally employed and working in a large firm (more than 200 employees), within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of women) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.038, Standard error: 0.013, Counterfactual mean: 0.146
Formal wage and salary earnings in 2013 Colombian pesos, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of women, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 35495, Standard error: 12421, Counterfactual mean: 200103
Formally employed, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of men) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.036, Standard error: 0.019, Counterfactual mean: 0.430
Formally employed and working in a large firm (more than 200 employees), within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of men) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 0.025, Standard error: 0.016, Counterfactual mean: 0.240
Formal wage and salary earnings in 2013 Colombian pesos, within 3-9 years after the end of the program (evaluation sample, sub-sample of men, including zeros for unemployed) Randomized Controlled Trial (panel regression, with controls and/or strata dummies) Magnitude: 35126, Standard error: 18597, Counterfactual mean: 327673


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