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Gender and Minorities

"Targeting the Ultra-Poor", TUP (BRAC, Bangladesh)



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Authors

Oriana Bandiera, Robin Burgess, Selim Gulesci, Imran Rasul, Munshi Sulaiman, Narayan Das

Source

Quarterly Journal of Economics

Year

2017

Link

Intervention

"Targeting the Ultra-Poor" program developed by BRAC, with the objective of setting impoverished women in rural communities on a sustainable trajectory out of poverty. The full intervention consisted of six components spread in 2 years: (i) one-off transfer of an asset chosen by the beneficiaries from a menu of assets (valued at 560 dollars in purchase power parity) that could be used in an income-generating activity (livestock and those relevant for small-scale retail operations, tree nurseries and vegetable growing); (ii) package of complementary training and support (also valued at 560 dollars in purchase power parity), which comprised initial classroom training at the ONG's training headquarters followed by livestock and assets specialists assistance through home visits every one or two months; (iii) subsistence allowance for the first 40 weeks after the asset transfer to help smooth any short-earning fluctuation due to adjustments across work activities; (iv) health support and training on legal, social and political rights; (v) constitution of village committees made up of elites which offer support to program recipients and deal with any conflicts and problems they encounter; (vi) encouragement of saving behavior and taking loans from the microfinance arms of the NGO

Unit of Analysis

Almost all ultra-poor and near-poor households (definition based on a participatory wealth ranking organized in each village) with an adult woman across 1,309 villages in the 13 poorest districts in the country, chosen by BRAC for implementation based on food security maps. Households borrowing from another microfinance organizations or receiving transfers from government anti-poverty programs were not considered eligible (more on eligibility on footnote 18)

Year

2007 - 2011

Country

Bangladesh

Outcome Methodology Effect
Hours allocated to livestock rearing in the survey year, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 415, Standard error: 38.9, Counterfactual mean: 191
Hours allocated to agriculture in the survey year, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -46.2, Standard error: 42.7, Counterfactual mean: 278.14
Hours allocated to casual wage work as maid in the survey year, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -117, Standard error: 45.0, Counterfactual mean: 447.05
Total hours allocated to work in the survey year, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 206, Standard error: 73.0, Counterfactual mean: 1217.00
Earnings from livestock rearing in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 115, Standard error: 14.1, Counterfactual mean: 18.48-
Earnings from agriculture in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -3.89, Standard error: 13.97, Counterfactual mean: 96.44
Wages in agriculture in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.053, Standard error: 0.024, Counterfactual mean: 0.441
Earnings from casual wage work as maid in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -25.25, Standard error: 11.57, Counterfactual mean: 112.84
Wages in casual wage work as maid in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.074, Standard error: 0.019, Counterfactual mean: 0.354
Earnings from all activities in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 87.8, Standard error: 28.58, Counterfactual mean: 410.92
Household fell below 1.25 dollars poverty line, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: -0.084, Standard error: 0.038, Counterfactual mean: 0.624
Consumption expenditure (per adult equivalent) in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 62.62, Standard error: 20.82, Counterfactual mean: 575.73
Value of household assets in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 39.65, Standard error: 9.08, Counterfactual mean: 69.69
Value of household cash savings in PPP-adjusted 2007 dollars, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 53.22, Standard error: 4.01, Counterfactual mean: 425
Household received loans, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.110, Standard error: 0.03, Counterfactual mean: 0.220
Household gave loans, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.051, Standard error: 0.01, Counterfactual mean: 0.016
Standardized total per capita consumption, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.314, Standard error: 0.034
Standardized food security index (based on survey responses regarding whether the household had a food surplus or deficit, enough food to eat over the last month and could afford to have two meals per day most of the time during the last year), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.256, Standard error: 0.079
Standardized asset index (based on the total value of productive and household assets measured in terms of a numeraire asset), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.327, Standard error: 0.029
Standardized financial inclusion index (based on the amount borrowed in the last 12 months from all sources, informal sources and formal sources, and total savings at the time of the survey), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.313, Standard error: 0.040
Standardized total time spent working in a typical day, approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.122, Standard error: 0.065
Standardized income and revenues index (based on monthly household livestock revenue and income from agriculture, non-farm micro-enterprises and paid labor as reported by the main female respondent), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.627, Standard error: 0.074
Standardized physical health index (based on self-reported ability to perform physical tasks, whether any household member had an illness in the 15 days before the survey, and self-perception of health), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.108, Standard error: 0.027
Standardized mental health index (based on self-reported happiness and mental anxiety), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.077, Standard error: 0.043
Standardized political awareness index (based on whether the respondent can correctly name politicians at different levels and is aware of the lowest legal age for voting), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.269, Standard error: 0.091
Standardized women's empowerment index (based on women's responses to a series of questions regarding their influence over household decision-making in several scenarios), approximately 2 years after the end of the intervention (or 4 years after the asset transfer) Randomized Controlled Trial (Average Intention-to-Treat Parameter) Magnitude: 0.077, Standard error: 0.056


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